Hallmarks of Cancer – From2000 to 2022

The Hallmarks of Cancer

In 2000, Hanahan and Weinberg enumerated 6 cancer hallmarks: 1) self-sufficiency in growth signals, 2) insensitivity to growth-inhibitory (antigrowth) signals, 3) evasion of programmed cell death (apoptosis), 4) limitless replicative potential, 5) sustained angiogenesis, and 6) tissue invasion and metastasis.

Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation

In 2011, Two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to the list: 7) reprogramming of energy metabolism and 8) evading immune destruction, with two enabling characteristics, including 9) genome instability and mutation, 10) tumor-promoting inflammation.

Hallmarks of Cancer: New Dimensions

In 2022, Four more hallmarks emerged into the family: 11) unlocking phenotypic plasticity, 12) nonmutational epigenetic reprogramming, 13) polymorphic microbiomes, and 14) senescent cells.

These concepts will enable us to fully understand the mechanisms of cancer development and malignant progression, and apply that knowledge to cancer medicine.

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